|Posted by Andrea Simmons on January 18, 2016 at 4:45 PM|
Adventurers Spring 2016
Let’s Learn about our Bodies!
January 19 – Bones: Structure and Joints
January 26 – Bones: Anatomy and Healing
February 2 – Muscles
February 9 – Co-op Break
February 16 – Digestion: Mouth and Teeth
February 23 – Digestion: Internal System and Process
March 1 – Lungs and Breathing
March 8 – Assembly Day: Invention Convention
March 15 – Heart and Circulation
March 22 – Co-op Break
March 29 – Brain and nerves
April 5 – Five Senses
April 12- Assembly Day: Eggonauts
April 19 – Five Senses Continued
April 26 – Skin
May 3 – Review/Make-up Day
May 10 – Assembly Day: Field Day
Here are my notes for the first few classes in case you would like to follow up at home.
Bones: Structure and Joints
1. What do bones do?
a. Support and give shape
• Flashlight on hand demonstration
b. Protect organs
c. Make blood cells (red bone marrow)
d. Storage (fat and minerals)
e. Movement – joints
2. Names and locations of bones.
a. Introduce skeletal model
b. When you are finished growing you will have 206 bones!
c. Head, shoulders, knees, and toes.
a. Joints are the places where bones meet.
b. Some joints allow a lot of movement, some only allow a little movement, and some don’t allow any movement at all!
c. There is a special fluid in joints called synovial fluid that helps them to move.
d. Friction activity – rub hands together for a minute then add lotion and rub again. Discuss observations.
d. There are different kinds of joints in your body that let you move in different ways.
e. Hinge joints
- Elbows and knees
- Very stable but limited motion
f. Ball-and-socket joints
- Hips and shoulders
- Wide range of motions but aren’t as stable as hinges.
g. Saddle Joints
- Less motion than ball and socket but more than hinge.
h. Plane Joints
- Bend and twist back
i. Pivot Joints
- Your skull to your vertebral column
- Shake your head no
- This is where the bones of the skull are fused. No movement.
4. Activities stations
a. Clay bodies with popsicle stick bones.
b. Frozen joint activities.
Bones: Anatomy and Healing
1. Bone Anatomy
a. Bones have layers.
- The outside layer, thin and tough.
- It has nerves that sense pain.
- It also has blood vessels where nutrients are brought into the bone and waste taken out.
- It helps build new bone.
l. Compact Bone
- Thick, hard layer.
- This is what you are looking at if you see bones at a museum, it can last thousands of years.
- Smooth and hard.
- Made of calcium (this is in milk) and tough fibers called collagen.
m. Spongy Bone
- Pores and tunnels that are connected in a pattern that makes the bone strong and resilient (able to bounce back after being pressed).
- Like foam.
n. Inner cavity
- Yellow bone marrow stores things like fat and minerals that your body needs.
- Red bone marrow makes red blood cells.
b. Bone facts
o. There are very few things on Earth stronger than bone!
p. Your bones are being remodeled all the time.
q. You need to eat well, exercise and get some sunshine (vitamin D) to have your bones remodeled well.
2. What happens when a bone breaks?
a. When you break a bone you bleed, just like if you cut yourself. The blood settles and forms a clot (kind of like a scab).
b. Bone building cells called osteoblasts come into the clot and starting making new bone.
c. Over time bone destroying cells (osteoclasts) help shape bone and the osteoblasts build a bone almost like the original.
d. Casts help move the parts of the bone close to each other and keep them from moving around so that your body can repair faster.
3. Activity Station
a. Broken twig x rays
b. Twig casts
1. What do muscles do?
a. Help us move
b. Help us breathe
c. Pump blood
2. Muscle facts
a. There are 640 muscles (remember there are only 206 bones).
b. Your muscles are so strong that if they could all work together to pull in the same direction at the same time they could pull a semi-truck!
c. Muscles make up almost half (40%) of your weight.
• Weigh and record muscle weight
d. Your smallest muscle is inside your ear.
e. Your biggest muscle is the one you sit on, it is called the gluteus maximus (it helps you walk, run, climb, and jump.
f. Your strongest muscle in the masseter, it is the muscle that closes your mouth.
3. Kinds of muscle
• Attached to your bones and help you move.
• Muscles are very polite, they never push! Muscles can only pull.
• When muscles pull they tighten up and get shorter and fatter.
• These muscles are voluntary, that means you control them by thinking about what you want them to do.
• Cardiac refers to the heart, that is the only place you will find this kind of muscle.
• This muscle is involuntary, you don’t have to think about it to make it work.
• You can hear this muscle contract and relax! Your heart beats about 100,000 times a day.
• These muscles are found in blood vessels, intestines, and bladder.
• These muscles are involuntary.
• They work like squeezing a toothpaste tube.
4. Activity Stations
a. Skeletal muscle – muscle fatigue and building muscle
b. Cardiac muscle – stethoscopes
c. Smooth muscle – panty hose and clay peristalsis
Digestion – Mouth and Teeth
1. The digestive system is all the parts of your body that takes food in, breaks it up, prepares it for your body to use, and gets rid of the trash.
2. This process is called digestion.
3. Digestion begins as soon as you put something into your mouth.
a. Remember the masseter muscle? It helps you bite, tear, and grind your food.
• This is the mechanical part of digestion, the grinding up and moving along of the food.
b. Teeth help break down food.
• Let’s use mirrors to look at our teeth and see their different shapes.
• Incisors are sharp and are used to bite and cut. Can you point to your incisors?
• Cuspids or canines are also sharp and are used for tearing food. They are pointy, can you point to them?
• Premolars and molars are the flat teeth in the back of your mouth and they are great at grinding.
4. Anatomy of the tooth
a. Enamel- the white coating on the outside of our teeth.
• Extremely hard, white, shiny
• Enamel is not living.
• It is the hardest substance in your body, even harder than compact bone! (remember we said there are few things in the world harder than bone?)
• Supports the enamel and absorbs shock that could damage your tooth.
• It’s alive! (It contains cells)
• This is where the nerves (the sensors that help us feel) and blood vessels are found.
• It is sensitive to hot and cold
5. Tooth Facts
a. The crown of the tooth is what you see above your gum.
b. Teeth are attached to your jaw bone by roots.
c. Cavities are holes in your teeth that are formed by germs in your mouth.
d. You get two sets of teeth! One when you are a baby (20) and one when you are an adult(32).
• Look at dental x-rays
e. When a tooth starts to come through your gums it is called eruption!
a. Chewing begins mechanical digestion but saliva (or spit) begins chemical digestion.
b. 99% water
c. Contains chemicals that help protect teeth and break down food
d. Defends mouth from infection
e. Makes food taste better
a. Helps move food around and shape it into a ball to be swalled.
b. Guides food to the back of your mouth.
c. Has taste buds!
8. Activity Stations
a. Build a model mouth
b. Chemical digestion with crackers and cheese